Introduction to the Bible - 55 - 2 Timothy

The Second Epistle to Timothy

by Louis Berkhof

 CONTENTS

 The contents of this Epistle falls into three parts:

 I. Considerations to strengthen Timothy's Courage, 1: 1--2:13. After  the greeting, 1, 2, the apostle urges Timothy to stir up his  ministerial gift, to be bold in suffering, and to hold fast the truth  entrusted to him, 3--14, enforcing these appeals by pointing to the  deterrent example of the unfaithful and the stimulating example of  Onesiphorus, 15--18. Further he exhorts him to be strong in the power  of grace, to commit the true teaching to others, and to be ready to  face suffering, 2:1-13.

 II. Exhortations primarily dealing with Timothy's Teaching, 2: l4--4:  8. Timothy should urge Christians to avoid idle and useless  discussions, and should rightly teach the truth, shunning vain  babblings, 14-21. He must also avoid youthful passions, foolish  investigations, and false teachers who, for selfish purposes, turn the  truth of God into unrighteousness, 2: 22--3: 9. He is further exhorted  to abide loyally by his past teaching, knowing that sufferings will  come to every true soldier and that deceivers will grow worse, 10-17;  and to fulfil his whole duty as an evangelist with sobriety and  courage, especially since Paul is now ready to be offered up, 4:1-8.

 III. Personal Reminiscences, 4: 9-22. Paul appeals to Timothy to come  to Rome quickly, bringing Mark and also taking his cloak and books, and  to avoid Alexander, 9-15. He speaks of his desertion by men, the  protection afforded him by the Lord, and his trust for the future,  16-18. With special greetings, a further account of his  fellow-laborers, and a final salutation the apostle ends his letter,  19-22.

 CHARACTERISTICS

 1. II Timothy is the most personal of the Pastoral Epistles.  Doctrinally it has no great importance, though it does contain the  strongest proof-passage for the inspiration of Scripture. In the main  the thought centers about Timothy, the faithful co-laborer of Paul,  whom the apostle gives encouragement in the presence of great  difficulties, whom he inspires to noble, self-denying efforts in the  Kingdom of God, and whom he exhorts to fight worthily in the spiritual  warfare against the powers of darkness, that he may once receive an  eternal reward.

 2. It is the last Epistle of Paul, the swan-song of the great apostle,  after a life of devotion to a noble cause, a life of Christian service.  We see him here with work done, facing a martyrs death. Looking back  his heart is filled with gratitude for the grace of God that saved him  from the abyss that yawned at his feet, that called and qualified him  to be a messenger of the cross, that protected him when dangers were  threatening, and that crowned his work with rich spiritual fruits. And  as he turns his eyes to the future, calm assurance and joyous hope are  the strength of his soul, for he knows that the firm foundation of God  will stand, since the Lord will punish the evil-doers and be the  eternal reward of his children. He already has visions of the heavenly  Kingdom, of eternal glory, of the coming righteous Judge, and of the  crown of righteousness, the blessed inheritance of all those that love  Christs appearance.

 COMPOSITION

 1. Occasion and Purpose. The immediate occasion for writing this  Epistle was the apostles presentiment of his fast approaching end. He  was anxious that Timothy should come to him soon, bringing Mark with  him. In all probability he desired to give his spiritual son some  fatherly advice and some practical instruction before his departure.  But we feel that ths alone did not call for a letter such as II Timothy  really is. Another factor must be taken in consideration. Paul was not  sure that Timothy would succeed in reaching Rome before his death, and  yet realized that the condition of the Ephesian church, the danger to  which Timothy was there exposed, and the importance of the work  entrusted to this youthful minister, called for a word of apostolic  advice, encouragement and exhortation. It seems that the Ephesian  church was threatened by persecution, 1:8; 2:3, 12; 3:12; 4:5; and the  heresy to which the apostle referred in his first epistle was evidently  still rife in the circle of believers. There were those who strove  about words, 2:14, were unspiritual, 2:16, corrupted in mind, 3: 8,  indulging in foolish and ignorant questionings, 2: 23, and fables, 4:4,  tending to a low standard of morality, 2:19, and teaching that the  resurrection was already past, 2:18.

 Hence the object of the Epistle is twofold. The writer wants to warn  Timothy of his impending departure, to inform him of his past  experiences at Rome and of his present loneliness, and to exhort him to  come speedily. Besides this, however, he desired to strengthen his  spiritual son in view of the deepening gloom of trials and persecution  that were threatening the church from without; and to fore-arm him  against the still sadder danger of heresy and apostasy that were  lurking within the fold. Timothy is exhorted to hold fast the faith, 1:  5, 13; to endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ, 2: 3-10;  to shun every form of heresy, 2:16-18; to instruct in meekness those  that withstand the Gospel, 2:24-26; and to continue in the things he  had learnt, 3:14-17.

 2. Time and Place. From 1: 17 it is perfectly evident that this letter  was written at Rome. The apostle was again a prisoner in the imperial  city. Though we have no absolute certainty, we deem it probable that he  was re-arrested at Troas in the year 67. The situation in which he  finds himself at Rome is quite different from that reflected in the  other epistles of the captivity. He is now treated like a common  criminal, 2: 9; his Asiatic friends with the exception of Onesiphorus  turned from him, 1: 15; the friends who were with him during his first  imprisonment are absent now, Col. 4:10-14; II Tim. 4:10-12; and the  outlook of the apostle is quite different from that found in  Philippians and Philemon. It is impossible to tell just how long the  apostle had already been in prison, when he wrote the Epistle, but from  the fact that he had had one hearing, 4:16 (which cannot refer to that  of the first imprisonment, cf. Phil, 1: 7, 12-14), and expected to be  offered up soon, we infer that he composed the letter towards the end  of his imprisonment, i. e. in the fall of A. D. 67.

 CANONICAL SIGNIFICANCE

 The canonicity of this Epistle has never been questioned by the Church;  and the testimony to its early and general use is in no way deficient.  There are quite clear traces of its language in Clement of Rome,  Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, The Acts of Paul and Thecla, and  Theophilus of Antioch. The letter is included in all the MSS., the old  Versions and the Lists of the Pauline Epistles. The Muratorian Fragment  names it as a production of Paul, and from the end of the second  century it is quoted by name.

 The Epistle has some permanent doctrinal value as containing the most  important proof-passage for the inspiration of Scripture, 3:16, and  also abiding historical significance in that it contains the clearest  Scriptural testimony to the life of Paul after his first Roman  imprisonment. But Lock truly says that "its main interest is one of  character, and two portraits emerge from it." We have here (1) the  portrait of the ideal Christian minister, busily engaged in the work of  his Master, confessing His Name, proclaiming His truth, shepherding His  fold, defending his heritage, and battling with the powers of evil; and  (2) the "portrait of the Christian minister, with his work done, facing  death. He acquiesces gladly in the present, but his eyes are turned  mainly to the past or to the future." (Lock in Hastings D. B. Art. II  Timothy) He is thankful for the work he was permitted to do, and  serenely awaits the day of his crowning.